Erskin, J. E. (1853). Journal of a Cruise among the Islands of the Western Pacific, including the Feejees and others inhabited by the Polynesian Negro races, in her Majesty’s Ship Havannah. London: Murray.

Henderson, G. C. (1931). Journal of Thomas Williams, missionary in Fiji, 1840-1853. 2 Vols. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Me, Ronda (2003). Kaivalagi ni Viti : cenus of Europeans resident in Fiji 1874-75. Byron Bay: Ronda B. B. Me.

Samson, Jane. (1998). Imperial benevolence : making British authority in the Pacific Islands. Honolulu : University of Hawai’i Press

Seemann, Berthold. (1862). Viti: an account of a government mission to the Vitian or Fijian Islands, in the years 1860 – 61. London: Macmillan.

Smythe, Sarah Maria. (1864). Ten months in the Fiji Islands. London: John Henry and James Parker.

Schutz, Albert. (1977).The diaries and correspondence of David Cargill, 1832 – 1843. Canberra: Australian National University Press.

Thurd, Sir Everard Im and Wharton, Leonard C. (1925). The journal of William Lockerby : sandalwood trader in the Fijian Islands during the years 1808-1909 : with an introduction & other papers connected with the earliest European visitors to the islands. London: Hakluty Society.

Wallis, M. D. (1851). Life in Feejee, or, Five years amont the cannibals (by a lady). Boston: W. Heath.

Wilkes, Charles. (1845). Narratives of the United State exploring expedition during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842 : Vol. 3. London: Wiley & Putnam.

Young, John Michael Render. (1984). Adventurous spirits : Australian migrant society in pre-cession Fiji. St Lucia: University of Queensland Press.


Bruce, Lucy (2007). Histories of Diversity: Kailoma Testimonies and ‘Part-European’ Tales from Colonial Fiji (1920–1970). Journal of Intercultural Studies, 28 (1), 113-127. Retrieved July 15, 2009, from

Abstract: Fiji’s citizens inherited a race conscious system developed during British colonialism. This paper discusses the issue of miscegenation and race segregation in colonial Fiji during 192070 in the lead-up to independence and it traces the emergence of a racially mixed community of Fijian/European mixed bloods (“Kailomas”) during early white settlement. The author, from this community, provides an analysis of the major themes of her people’s collective memory and offers an alternative explanation of the true impact of Christianising missions and colonial policy on indigenous Fijians that treated their offspring as a group apart from their natural families. It draws attention to colonial management of this “race problem” and the creation of a privileged underclass of “Part-Europeans” who lived on the social fringes in the colonial ordering of Fiji. This legacy demonstrates the extent to which obsessive ideas surrounding racial boundaries have shaped present day thinking in Fiji.

de Bruce, Lucy. (2008). A Tartan Clan in Fiji: Narrating the Coloniser ‘Within’ the Colonised. In Brij V. Lal & Vicki Luke (Eds.), Telling Pacific lives (pp.93-105). Melbourne: ANU  Press. Available online:

Fragmented identies among postcolonial Fijians: extending the hand of kinship and respecting the right to choose (n.d.) from People in Harmony website.

Knapman, Claudia. (1988). The White child in Colonial Fiji, 1895-1930. The Journal of Pacific History, 23:2, 206-213.

Knapman, Cladia and Ralston, Caroline. (1989). Historical Patchwork: A Reply to John Young’s ‘Race and Sex in Fiji Re-Visited’ . The Journal of Pacific History, 24:2, 221-224.

Legge, Christopher. (1966). William Diaper : a biographical sketch. The Journal of Pacific History, 1, 79-90.
Note: William Diaper, John Hunt, Joseph Streeter

Panapasa, G. (2008, June 29). When there is always room for the kailoma. Fiji Times

Ralston, Caroline. (1971). The pattern of race relations in 19th century Pacific port towns. The Journal of Pacific History, 6, 39-60.

Samson, Jane. (1995). Rescuing Fijian women? The British Anti-slavery Proclamation of 1852. The Journal of Pacific History, 30:1, 22-38.

Abstract: This essay explores missionary allegations about slave-dealing in Fiji, and their acceptance by British officials, as cultural responses to sexual relationships between indigenous women and white men. It also examines the imperial implications of ‘the culture of anti-slavery’, whereby rhetoric about the enslavement of non-European women became a rationale for attempted legal intervention in the mixed-race community of Levuka. Finally, it considers how humanitarian representations were contested, then appropriated, by one of the objects of their disapproval: a ‘lawless’ white man from Levuka. William Nimmo’s response to the anti-slavery proclamation gives us valuable information about Levuka’s growing self-definition as a community, and its attempts to control behaviour within its ranks. Using the ‘Christianisation and civilisation’ argument as successfully as the missionaries had, Nimmo and his friends sought recognition and respect from British authorities who seemed biased toward the missionary point of view, while making their own bid for official support in Fiji.

Note: Thomas Brown, Paddy Connell (also known as Paddy Connor),  John Jackson, William Nimmo, Charles Pickering, David Whippy.

Sayes, Shelley Ann. (1984). Changing Paths of the Land: Early Political Hierarchies in Cakaudrove, Fiji. The Journal of Pacific History, 19:1, 3-20.

Stokes, Evelyn. (1969). Early plantation experiments in the Fiji Islands. Agricultural History, 43:3. 379-392.
Note: Robert Swanston, Dr I. M. Brower, Wakaya.

Simpson, W. A. (2009, June 13). Fiji Youth. Fiji Times

Ward, Gerard R. (2002). Land use on Mago, Fiji: 1865-1882. The Journal of Pacific History, 37:1, 103-108.
Note: William Hennings, Edmund Ryder, George Ryder, Thomas Ryder

Young, John. (1988). Race and sex in Fiji re-visited. The Journal of Pacific History, 23:2, 214-222.

Veracini, Lorenzo. (2008). Emphatically Not a White Man’s Colony’: Settler Colonialism and the Construction of Colonial Fiji. The Journal of Pacific History, 43:2, 189-205.

Abstract: Consistent with an interpretive tradition identifying Fiji as a constituent site in the evolution of colonial forms, this paper argues that Fiji’s colonial history provides a privileged point from which to explore the divide separating colonial and settler colonial phenomena. While suggestive more than conclusive, it has two reciprocally supporting aims: first, it argues that colonial development in Fiji should be contextualised within transcolonial debates regarding Indigenous–settler relations, and that the construction of Fiji’s colonial landscape resulted from a decisively anti-settler determination; and, second, that a reframed understanding of Fiji’s colonial history can contribute to a reappraisal of the evolution of wider traditions of colonial governance.

David Whippy

Campbell, I. C. (1998). David Whippy in Fiji in “Gone native” in Polynesia : captivity narratives and experiences from the South Pacific. (pp. 62-68). Westport, Conn : Greenwood Press.

Levuka (2008, January 13). 1822: David Whippy, of European descent of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, USA, arrived in Fiji aboard a beche-de-mer ship in 1822. Message posted to

Levuka (2008, August 17). David Whippy’s Levuka dynasty: five Fijian partners and 12 known children with Adi Tulia, Yunus, Dorcas, Delau and Tosaka Levuka. Message posted to

  • Riles, Annelise. (1998). Division within the boundaries. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 4:3, 409-424
  • Abstract:In the Part-European settlement of Kasavu, Fiji, land is divided in each generation into parallel plots of ever-decreasing width but identical form. Kinship as division, I argue, is knowledge which is not representative of social relations and which therefore does not effectuate ‘change’. This is contrasted to an additive logic of of kinship relations among urban Part-Europeans, a logic in which information is potentially infinite and thus always incomplete, and in which knowledge attaches to persons and changes through techniques of collective discovery.

Simmons, Sharifa (2007). The David Whippy’s Family of Nantucket and Fiji

Updated: 17 May, 2010


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